Study of morphological diversity of rice landraces (Oryza sativa.L)
An investigation was carried out to characterize 97 rice (Oryza sativa L.) land races for 24 different morphological traits using DUS (Distinctiveness, Uniformity, Stability) characters. A total of three characters viz., leaf auricles, leaf ligules and leaf shape of ligule were found to be monomorphic. The characters namely leaf anthocyanin colouration, leaf sheath anthocyanin colouration, panicle awns, panicle distribution of awns and leaf pubescence of blade surface were recorded as dimorphic. Seven traits viz., coleoptile colour, leaf intensity of green colour, ligule colour, leaf anthocyanin colouration of auricles, panicle exertion, leaf length of blade and leaf width of blade were of trimorphic. Five traits namely basal leaf sheath colour, culm attitude, flag leaf attitude of blade (early and late observation), panicle curvature of main axis were recorded four states of expression. The traits viz., spikelet colour of stigma, stem length, days to 50% flowering and time to maturity were showed five states of expression. The DUS characterization for these characters will be useful for rice breeders to restore the superior genes and use it in crop improvement programmes. Presence of uniform purple colour in whole plant incluing ligule and auricles was observed in purple puttu and chitansamba and can be used as morphological markers. The land races namely Ayyan samba and red sirumani were found to be the early maturity types. The short stem length and erect culms were observed in senthooram and seevansamba and these genotypes withstand lodging. Hence, these land races would be used as donors for the development of short duration and lodging resistance respectively in rice improvement programme.
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