Estimation of variability, heritability, genetic advance and assessment of frequency distribution for morphological traits in intercross population of maize
Genetic variability analysis is an essential criterion in the selection of crops for improvement programmes and components like Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation, Genotypic Coefficient of Variation, heritability and Genetic Advance as percent of Mean are useful for the exploitation of variability. Skewness and kurtosis indicate the type of gene action and the number of genes governing the trait and selection can be done based on these values. In the present study, variability, heritability, genetic advance, skewness and kurtosis were assessed for the intercross (IC2) population of (UMI1200×CE477) × (UMI1200×VQL1). Fourteen biometrical traits were recorded and the mean values were used for further analysis. Higher PCV values were obtained compared to their respective GCV values for all the traits of the population. Cob length (83.28% and 2.09%) showed the highest heritability and genetic advance suggesting higher genetic gain, which can be improved with simple selection methods and hence, showing additive gene action. Single plant yield showed higher heritability (77.29%) with low genetic advance (0.80%) and hence, requires appropriate selection methods to improve the genetic gain. With the exception of days to tasseling, all the traits showed platykurtic distribution suggesting that the large number of genes are involved in governing the traits. Days to silking, tassel length, the number of tassel branches, leaf length, leaf breadth, cob length, the number of kernels per row, cob weight, 100 kernel weight and single plant yield showed positive skewness suggesting dominant based complementary epistasis and hence, rapid genetic gain can be obtained by intense selection. Days to tasseling, plant height, ear height and the number of kernel rows per cob negative skewness showing duplicate gene action and hence, the rapid genetic gain can be obtained by mild selection.
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