Characterization of high molecular weight glutenin subunits of Wheat genotypes
End use quality of wheat is an important goal for developing elite genotypes. Glutenins are considered key factors in improving processing quality, particularly high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS). The HMW-GS are known to be encoded by three Glu-1 loci located on the long arms of chromosomes 1A, 1B and 1D. The endosperm storage proteins of 90 advanced breeding lines developed for peninsular zone of India were analysed by SDS-PAGE to determine their HMW-GS compositions. A total of ten alleles were identified: three at Glu-A1, five at Glu-B1, and two at Glu-D1. In Glu-A1 locus, null, 1 and 2* alleles were found with the frequency of 48%, 30% and 22%. Whereas, in Glu-B1, 5 alleles with frequency of 17+18 (33%), 7+9 (27%), 7 (25%), 6+8 (9%), and 20 (6%) were detected. In Glu-D1 locus, 2+12 and 5+10 were marked with the frequency of 60% and 40%, respectively. Quality score of genotypes were ranged from 4 to 10, with an average of 6.95 indicating vast genetic diversity among the genotypes. The presence of subunits combinations in different varieties with low, medium and high gluten strength revealed that breeding wheat for bread, chapatti and biscuits is possible as per end use requirement.
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